بيانات الملخص الأولية

The movement of pedestrians in Mina (near the city of Makkah,
Saudi Arabia) during the Hajj an Islamic Pilgrimage is a major concern for
urban planners and designers for a number of reasons. The \"Stoning the
devil\" ceremony in Mina’s Jamarat area during the ceremony of the Hajj is
performed by more than three million Muslims every year. The pilgrims \"Stone
the Devil\" by throwing seven stones at each of three Jamarah (stone pillars).
As the number of pilgrims increase, the Jamarat area witnesses overcrowding
problems every year. In recent years, the crowd has panicked and pilgrims
were trampled to death, also Managing the pedestrian traffic in urban
environments is an important way to prevent these types of tragedies created
by overcrowding. A way to help curb the problem of overcrowding could be
accomplished by designing the more robust urban environment, and better
managing the movement within the urban environment. This paper discusses
a spatial-temporal visualization of the movement of pilgrim groups to and from
Jamarat area according to a schedule developed by the Ministry of Hajj. The
approach utilizes GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to simulate the
movement of groups of pilgrims from their tent camps to Jamarat and back to
their camp. Using the API of GIS, a code has been developed to generate
series of points with time stamps that represent and track the movement of
each subgroup of pilgrims. This is done based on a shortest path algorithm.
These track points are then loaded into a tracking analysis extension of the
GIS software. A spatial-temporal visualization of pedestrian movements to
and from Jamarat area is then played. The software can also visualize critical
overcrowded areas at different times over the three days of the ceremony. In
this research it is customized to visualize overcrowding at the Jamarat area.
This provides a useful tool to when evaluating the developed time schedule
for group movements. It could be used to evaluate the design and planning of
the urban environment. The paper concludes with possible applications of the
approach developed through this research. Some ways of making this
approach is to be more reliable, validated, and realistic which are also
discussed in this paper. Future approaches to designing a fully automated
system that generate a movement time schedule are also proposed