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An Investigation into the Distribution and Concentration of Drugs of Abuse within Different Body Compartments and Relationship with Toxicity

 

 

 

Title in English: 
An Investigation into the Distribution and Concentration of Drugs of Abuse within Different Body Compartments and Relationship with Toxicity
Abstract in English: 
ABSTRACT Femoral blood is preferable in post-mortem toxicological analysis but may not always be available. Alternative specimens such as cardiac blood, vitreous humour, stomach contents, bile, urine, hair, bone, liver and muscle may be used. However, only limited data are available for the interpretation of drug concentrations in these alternative specimens. The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of drugs in different body compartments in relation to levels in femoral blood and their toxicity. All post-mortem specimens from 95 subjects were provided by Professor M Tsokos, Institute of Legal Medicine, Germany. Ethanol was measured by gas chromatography, whilst other drugs of abuse were initially screened for by immunoassays (in blood, hair and bone by Cozart drug immunoassay kit; urine by cloned enzyme donor immunoassay). A general drug screen and confirmation was performed on all specimens using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and drug quantification was by high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Drug levels in femoral blood and median concentration ratios in relation to femoral blood (range) were as follows: ethanol 4-365mg/dL, median ratios for cardiac blood 1.9 (0.8:1-42.3:1), vitreous humour 1.6 (0.7:1-9.4:1), urine 6.5 (1.7:1-153:1) and bile 11.3 (1.0:1-34:1); for cocaine 5-2413ng/ml, median ratios for cardiac blood 1.2 (0.2:1-7.0:1), vitreous humour 1.4 (1.0:1-3.3:1), urine 4.9 (0.4:1->1000:1) and bile 7.0 (0.6:1-41.6:1); for methadone 7-1795 ng/ml, median ratios for cardiac blood 1.4 (0.6:1->3.9:1), vitreous humour 0.7 (0.04:1-0.99:1), urine 0.7 (0.3:1->3.9:1) and bile 2.9 (0.7:1->9.6:1); for morphine 7-1756 ng/ml, median ratios for cardiac blood 2.0 (0.9:1-11.5:1), vitreous humour 1.0 (0.4:1-18.5:1), urine 2.2 (0.1:1-56:1) and bile 24 (1.3:1 -> 195:1). Similarly, in liver and muscle for cocaine the median concentration ratio in ml/g was 0.2 (0.04:1-1.0:1) and 0.1 (0.1:1-2.5:1) respectively; for methadone 0.3 (0.2:1-<0.7:1) and 0.1 (0.05:1->0.7:1) respectively; and for morphine 0.6 (0.1:1- 1.6:1) and 0.3 (0.1:1-1.6:1) respectively. In the majority of cases there was a good correlation between femoral blood levels and the concentration in other body compartments. This study has added to our knowledge and understanding of the usefulness of using alternative post-mortem specimens to study the distribution of drugs of abuse in different body compartments and how the concentrations relate to femoral blood levels and toxicity
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حقوق المستهلكين

يعد مجال حقوق المستهلك من المواضيع التي أخذت حيزاً واسعا في العالم المتطور ولكنه لا يلقى الأهمية ذاتها في دول العالم النامية، وله أهميته في أدبيات علم الإدارة عامة وإدارة التسويق بصورة خاصة وهي من المفاهيم الأكثر اهمية خاصة للمستهلكين وفي بيئة الأعمال اليوم التي تتسم بالتعقيد والتغيير المستمر وفي ظل مفهوم حرية السوق وتركيز المنظمات والتجار على الأرباح وتجاهل المستهلك، ولاشك أن تحقيق هذا الهدف يتطلب الألتزام من قبل المنتجين والمنظمات بشروط العمل الصحيحة وتحمل مسؤولياتهم التي تضمن من خلالها حصول المستهلك على منتجات تتمتع بالمواصفات المطلوبة وتتوفر فيها حقوقه المنصوصة عليها في الدساتير القانو

Title in English: 
consumer rights
Abstract in English: 
The study of consumer rights is been taken a large scope in new world, in contrary the third world and it has its important in management special in marketing, and consumers in rapidly and changing environment of business .In order to make it done it needs from these sellers to commits with right work and take their responsibilities that insure that consumers get their rights and give them the right protection against them in acquiring products that have been illustrated in worlds regulations without fake .According to above this study try to know consumers rights and the how the sellers work in Duhok governorate. In study we depended on the questionnaire made for this purpose and data was analyzed. In this study the market of Duhok was chosen. The study ends with several conclusions and recommendation the main conclusion was nonexistence of foundation that look after the action of organization works to ensure consumers rights ,and the critical recommendation was the establishment consumer rights council have the appropriate role in defending the consumers against companies and sellers.
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